Themes in George Bernard Shaw’s “Arms and the Man”

Arms and the Man explores the themes of war and love, courage and heroism, class and marriage, and realism versus idealism.


In Arms and the Man by George Bernard Shaw, one can witness a captivating clash between romantic and anti-romantic perspectives, each offering a unique lens through which to view life’s intricacies.

Arms and the Man explores the themes of war and love, courage and heroism, class and marriage, imagination versus reality, innocence versus experience, and realism versus idealism.

Theme of War and Love

In Arms and the Man, the intertwining of war and love emerges as a prominent and captivating theme.


From the very outset, the play draws a striking comparison between these two concepts. As the story unfolds, contrasting and complementary aspects between war and love are revealed.

Louka skillfully juxtaposes the audacity required for a reckless cavalry charge, led by Sergius, with the bravery needed to defy societal norms by entering an unpopular marriage.

Louka draws a parallel, equating the criticism faced by the couple with the peril faced by a regiment in the midst of a barrage of gunshots. Similarly, Louka is caught eavesdropping on Sergius, Bluntschli, and Raina, reminiscent of Bluntschli’s past experience of covertly listening to an enemy camp during a time of war. In both scenarios, the stakes are high, with love and life hanging in the balance.

Both love and war possess the capacity to evoke idealistic sentiments, as exemplified by Raina’s romanticized perspective in the opening scene.

However, in these realms, discretion becomes an indispensable safeguard against regret and catastrophe.

Theme of Courage and Heroism

The play revolves around courage and heroism, particularly as they manifest in the context of war.

The play’s title itself, Arms and the Man, alludes to the examination of the relationship between a soldier and the weapons he carries, providing a glimpse into this compelling theme. Two contrasting attitudes towards heroism are presented in the play.

Sergius epitomizes the character driven by a relentless pursuit of heroism, often blinded to the unnecessary risks he takes. In stark contrast, Bluntschli, the pragmatic soldier, fights only when compelled, finding greater value in chocolate than in cartridges on the battlefield. He candidly shares his viewpoint with Sergius, distinguishing himself as a professional soldier who recognizes the importance of preserving one’s life, stating, “I fight when I have to, and am very glad to get out of it when I have to. You’re only an amateur: you think fighting’s an amusement.”

Bluntschli’s perspective challenges the notion that heroism solely lies in reckless bravery, emphasizing that a true war hero is one who exhibits wisdom and lives to fight another day.

This portrayal reminds us that a soldier is, fundamentally, a human being whose actions are often driven by the instinct for survival. The measure of heroism lies not merely in the fallen soldier but in the soldier who employs practicality and discretion, transcending the idealistic notions of heroism. While the idealist might perceive this approach as an act of cowardice, the realist recognizes it as a pragmatic path to heroism, blending common sense with valor.

Louka stretches the boundaries of military courage into the realm of romance, challenging Sergius to transfer the blind courage he exhibits on the battlefield to the domain of love.

In Arms and the Man, the exploration of courage and heroism offers a profound insight into the complexities of human nature and the multifaceted nature of bravery.

Theme of Class and Marriage

Theme of class and marriage is yet another important theme in George Bernard Shaw’s Arms and the Man.

The play delves into the notion that an ideal marriage is one arranged within a particular social class. It is expected that Raina should wed Sergius, her equal in social standing, while Louka should be destined for marriage with Nicola, given their shared role as servants. However, circumstances unfold in unexpected ways, challenging these established norms.

Sergius defies societal expectations by condescending to marry Louka, a departure from the anticipated union with Raina.

Conversely, Raina finds herself drawn to her “chocolate cream soldier,” Bluntschli, before even realizing that he has inherited a vast fortune from his late father. This revelation ultimately sways Catherine and Petkoff, Raina’s parents, to accept Bluntschli. Social class, often defined by wealth and status, becomes a determining factor in the characters’ perceptions and choices.

The play highlights the prevailing societal disapproval of marriage across different social classes. Sergius’ decision to shift his affections from Raina, an aristocrat, to Louka, Raina’s maid, is portrayed as an act of remarkable courage.

Nicola reflects on Louka, acknowledging, “She had a soul above her station, and I have been no more than her confidential servant.”

Ironically, Raina, who initially embraces the concept of class-based marriages, undergoes a transformation by the play’s conclusion.

She finds contentment with her “chocolate cream soldier,” Bluntschli, irrespective of his newfound wealth or social status.

Theme of Imagination versus Reality

Arms and the Man unravels a profound theme that revolves around the stark contrast between imagination and reality. In the play, a noticeable disparity emerges, exposing the stark disparities between how things appear and how they truly are.

Raina, for instance, holds a fervent belief that Sergius, her fiancé, embodies the epitome of heroism and nobility, incapable of any base actions. However, Sergius himself confesses to the emotional strain of pursuing a lofty ideal of love and the need for relief from its burdens. He acknowledges the existence of various versions of himself within his own being, presenting a stark departure from Raina’s idealistic perception.

Raina herself initially presents as an idealist and romantic, until Bluntschli confronts her with an alternate perspective. In despair, she surrenders, fearing that her true self has been exposed, questioning whether Bluntschli now despises her. Yet, he reassures her that his sentiment towards her is one of infatuation rather than contempt. This revelation highlights that beneath Raina’s idealistic facade lies a deep-rooted realism, with Bluntschli successfully seeing through her façade.

Bluntschli himself confesses to possessing an “incurably romantic disposition,” which occasionally leads him to engage in foolish actions. However, his realist nature tends to overpower his idealistic tendencies. This conflict between appearance and reality particularly resonates with those labeled as idealists within the play.

The exploration of the chasm between imagination and reality exposes the complexities of human nature and the often-hidden facets of individuals’ true selves.

Theme of Innocence versus Experience

Also emphasized in the play is the interplay between innocence and experience, closely intertwined with the dichotomy of realism and idealism.

Innocence is associated with a lack of experience, evoking idealistic tendencies, while experience signifies a realistic approach to life, derived from a profound understanding of its complexities.

Raina embodies innocence, while Bluntschli stands as the epitome of experience. Their encounter in the opening scene sets the stage for a clash between these contrasting qualities.

Bluntschli even perceives Raina as an adolescent girl barely seventeen, unaware that she is, in fact, a fairly experienced lady of twenty-three.

It is noteworthy to observe the transformative growth experienced by both Raina and Sergius throughout the play. They evolve from a state of innocence, characterized by idealism, to a state of experience, marked by realism. This journey showcases their maturation, as they grapple with the complexities of life and shed their youthful naivety. The theme of innocence versus experience underscores the universal human struggle to reconcile the purity of innocence with the realities of the world.

Theme of Realism versus Idealism

Arms and the Man also delves into the theme of realism versus idealism. It explores the notions of perfection and imperfection in various facets of life, such as war, love, courage, and heroism.

The idealist yearns for perfection in all things, often harboring grand illusions, while the realist embraces the inherent imperfections of humanity and remains grounded, rarely experiencing disappointment.

Characters like Sergius and Raina, who embody idealistic perspectives, are prone to disillusionment when confronted with the harsh realities of life.

Conversely, characters like Louka and Bluntschli embody remarkable stability as the realists within the play. They maintain a pragmatic outlook, acknowledging the flaws and imperfections that permeate human existence.

This contrast between realism and idealism is further enhanced by the conflict between romantic and anti-romantic attitudes presented in the play. The realist embodies an anti-romantic stance, while the romantic is intertwined with idealistic tendencies, perceiving life through rose-tinted glasses.

Bernard Shaw himself describes Arms and the Man as an anti-romantic comedy, as it is the realists who ultimately triumph. The play concludes with a noticeable absence of lingering idealism, as even Catherine, a character initially resistant to change, is won over and supports the proposed match between Raina and Bluntschli.

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